African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5230

Full Length Research Paper

Oral Candida colonization in patients with fixed orthodontic appliances: The importance of some nutritional and salivary factors

Najla Dar-Odeh1*, Asem Shehabi2, Zaid Al-Bitar1, Iyad Al-Omari1, Serene Badran1, Mahmoud Al-Omiri1, Moayyad Naser3, Mohammad Al-Beyari4 and Osama Abu-Hammad1
1Faculty of Dentistry, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. 2Faculty of Medicine, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan. 3Dental Department, University of Jordan Hospital, Amman, Jordan. 4Faculty of Dentistry, Umm Al-Qura University, Mecca, Saudi Arabia.
Email: [email protected]

  •  Accepted: 15 July 2011
  •  Published: 04 August 2011


We investigated the relationship between fixed orthodontic appliances and oral Candidacolonization.  The influence of some important nutritional and salivary factors was also investigated. These factors included: hemoglobin, vitamin B12, ferritin and folate levels, salivary flow rate, salivary pH, tobacco smoking and dietary habits. Patients enrolled in this study were adolescent patients aged 12-18 years who attended the Orthodontics Department/University of Jordan Hospital for the provision of fixed metallic orthodontic appliances. Salivary samples were collected on the first visit prior to bonding, one month and four months later. All patients were investigated for serum vitamin B12, serum ferritin, red-cell folate, complete blood count, salivary pH, and salivary flow rate. Data were obtained from the patients regarding tobacco smoking and dietary habits. We found that  Candida colonization did not increase after bonding of fixed orthodontic appliances. None of the local oral factors investigated was correlated with Candida colonization. Only two systemic factors (serum vitamin B12 and red-cell folate) were significantly (P<0.05) associated with Candidacolonization during the study period. It was obvious that metallic fixed orthodontic appliances did not encourage oral Candida colonization during the four months study period. On the other hand, it seems that nutritional factors like serum vitamin B12 and red-cell folate can influence oral Candida colonization more than tobacco smoking, dietary and salivary factors.


Key words: Oral, Candida, orthodontic appliances, nutritional deficiency, smoking.