African Journal of
Pharmacy and Pharmacology

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pharm. Pharmacol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0816
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPP
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 2241

Full Length Research Paper

Assessment of the immunomodulatory activity of Artavol® aqueous extract in Plasmodium berghei infected mice

Martin Amanya
  • Martin Amanya
  • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.
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Clement Olusoji Ajayi
  • Clement Olusoji Ajayi
  • Pharm-Biotechnology and Traditional Medicine Centre, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
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Bernard Natukunda
  • Bernard Natukunda
  • Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Mbarara, Uganda.
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Francis Wasswa
  • Francis Wasswa
  • Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
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Alice Bayiyana
  • Alice Bayiyana
  • Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
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Rose Nabatanzi
  • Rose Nabatanzi
  • Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
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Obondo Sande
  • Obondo Sande
  • Department of Immunology and Molecular Biology, Makerere University, College of Health Sciences, P. O. Box 7072, Kampala, Uganda.
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Amon Agaba
  • Amon Agaba
  • Department of Pharmacology and Therapeutics, Mbarara University of Science and Technology, Uganda.
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  •  Received: 14 March 2022
  •  Accepted: 17 May 2022
  •  Published: 31 May 2022

Abstract

ARTAVOL® is an herbal product derived from de-artemisinised extracts of Artemisia annua combined with lemon grass extract and avocado seed powder as a base locally used in Uganda for malaria prevention. This study assessed the immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract of Artavol® in Plasmodium berghei infected mice. The immunomodulatory activity of the aqueous extract of Artavol® was evaluated on Chloroquine-sensitive P. berghei ANKA-infected mice using 7 days test at 15, 30, and 60 bmg/kg with Pyrimethamine (1.25 mg/kg) as positive control; and distilled water as negative controls. Seven days post – infection, mice were euthanized and the spleen collected from each mouse under sterile conditions. Phenotypic and functional characterization was T-cell surface and intracellular markers was done by CytofleX LX flow Cytometer, and the data obtained were analyzed using FlowJo version 10.7.1 software. All the extracts (15-60 mg/kg) doses showed a significant increase in the frequency of monocytes (p=0.0078, p=0.0084, and p<0.0001, respectively) compared to the negative control. The extract at 30 and 60 mg/kg showed a gradual significant increase (p<0.0001 and p< 0.0001, respectively) in the frequency of natural killer cells (NK cells) compared to the negative control. The aqueous extract of ARTAVOL® possesses variable immunomodulatory effects and showed ability to increase the frequency of monocytes and natural killer cells. IFN-γ and TNF-α levels showed a significant increase suggesting the extract induced their responses.

Key words: Artavol®, Immunomodulatory effect, Plasmodium berghei.