African Journal of
Political Science and International Relations

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Pol. Sci. Int. Relat.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0832
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJPSIR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 403


East is Red (Ink): China aid and debt diplomacy in Sub-Saharan Africa

Paul James Greenbaum
  • Paul James Greenbaum
  • Princeton School for International Affairs, Schwarzman College, Princeton University, USA.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 28 April 2020
  •  Accepted: 21 October 2020
  •  Published: 30 April 2021


Alden C (2009). China and Africa's Natural Resources: The Challenges and Implications for Development and Governance, Africa Portal. Available at:



Alesina A, Dollar D (2000). Who Gives Foreign Aid to Whom and Why? Journal of Economic Growth 5(1):33-63.


Black LD (1968). The Strategy of Foreign Aid.



Brant P (2013). Chinese Aid in the South Pacific: Linked to Resources? Asian Studies Review 37(2):158-177.


Brautigam D (2013). 'Rubbery Numbers for Chinese Aid to Africa'. China in Africa the Real Story.


Calì M, Te Velde DW (2011). 'Does aid for trade really improve trade performance?. World development 39(5):725-740.


Correia S (2015). Singletons, cluster-robust standard errors and fixed effects: a bad mix Technical Note, Duke University.


Dreher A, Fuchs A, Parks B, Strange AM, Tierney MJ (2018). Apples and Dragon Fruits: The Determinants of Aid and Other Forms of State Financing from China to Africa, p. 184.


Easterly W, Levine R (1997). Africa's Growth Tragedy: Policies and Ethnic Divisions. The Quarterly Journal of Economics 112(4):1203-1250.


Fearon JD (1999). Why ethnic politics and "pork" tend to go together. In an SSRC-MacArthur sponsored conference on "Ethnic Politics and Democratic Stability," University of Chicago.


Fuchs A, Rudyak M (2019). The motives of china's foreign aid. In Handbook on the International Political Economy of China. Edward Elgar Publishing.


Gregoratti C, Åberg J (2010). Chinese Financial Assistance in Angola-Promise, Curse or an Uncertain Venture? p. 103.


Hoeffler A, Outram V (2011). Need, Merit, or Self-Interest-what determines the allocation of aid?. Review of Development Economics 15(2):237-250.


Jansson J (2009) Patterns of Chinese Investment, Aid and Trade in Central Africa (Cameroon, the DRC and Gabon). University of Stellenbosch, Centre for Chinese Studies, Johannesburg, p. 59.


Muchapondwa E, Nielson D, Parks B, Strange AM, Tierney MJ (2016). '"Ground-Truthing" Chinese Development Finance in Africa: Field Evidence from South Africa and Uganda'. The Journal of Development Studies 52(6):780-796.


Oruko MO (2018). China threatens to stop SGR funding after Kenya bans Chinese fish imports, - Kenya news. Available at:



Posner DN (2004). Measuring ethnic fractionalization in Africa. American Journal of Political Science 48(4):849-863.