International Journal of
English and Literature

  • Abbreviation: Int. J. English Lit.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 2141-2626
  • DOI: 10.5897/IJEL
  • Start Year: 2010
  • Published Articles: 278

Full Length Research Paper

Metaphors stemming from nature in the poetry of Mahmoud Darwish

Nawal Al-Sheikh
  • Nawal Al-Sheikh
  • Department of Languages, Faculty of Humanities, Al-Istiqlal University, Palestine.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 27 April 2021
  •  Accepted: 09 June 2021
  •  Published: 30 June 2021


This is a critical paper inspecting metaphors, the most artistic device, in Mahmoud Darwish's poetry. This research classified metaphors into three basic categories: metaphors of trees and plants such as wheat, metaphors of animals and birds such as butterfly, hoopoe, and dove, and metaphors of concrete and abstract natural elements. This study reports the fact that Darwish was brought up in a rural community. His father was a villager who grew crops for being food secure. Consequently, that rural environment affected the poetry of Darwish through metaphors and symbolism. Thus, it can be concluded that these poetic metaphors are a logic outcome of that rural atmosphere.


Key words: Metaphor, Mahmoud Darwish, resistance literature, nature.