African Journal of
Microbiology Research

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Microbiol. Res.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1996-0808
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJMR
  • Start Year: 2007
  • Published Articles: 5233

Table of Content: 29 February, 2012; 6(8)

February 2012

Resolution of intracerebral Bacillus cereus infection following open neck injury after comprehensive treatment

Bacillus cereus can cause a wide range of infections that are often overlooked in clinical practice. A case of intracerebral B. cereus infection following open neck injury in a 5-year-old child which was successfully treated with comprehensive therapy consisting ofantibiotics and ventriculoperitoneal shunt placement is reported.   Key words: Bacillus cereus, comprehensive therapy,...

Author(s): Guo-Jie Yao, Jie Gong, Ge Zhang, Cheng-Cai Li, Zheng Liu, Wei Du, Guo-zheng Xu, Ke Wei.

February 2012

A review of phytochemistry, bioactivities and ethno medicinal uses of Rhazya stricta Decsne (Apocynaceae)

Rhazya stricta Decne is an important medicinal plant belonging to family Apocynaceae.  Its chemical constituents, biological and pharmacological activities, and ethno medicinal uses have been reviewed in the present study. The reported phytochemical studies conducted on various parts of R. stricta plant revealed presence of over 100 alkaloids and few non-alkaloidal compounds. Most of the...

Author(s): Sarfaraz Khan Marwat, Fazal-ur-Rehman, Khalid Usman, Syed Salim Shah, Naveed Anwar and Imdad Ullah

February 2012

Bacterial hazards in a dental office: An update review

Biological factors are constantly present during dental procedures. They are causes of cross-infections in a dental office, constituting occupational hazards for dental personnel exposed to them for long periods of time. The authors review the current knowledge on bacterial factors present in the environment of a dental office and look at the infectious factors spread via blood-borne route, direct contact with a patient...

Author(s): Jolanta Szymańska and Jolanta Sitkowska

February 2012

Campylobacter as a cause of gastroenteritis in humans and animals

Campylobacter is a zoonotic microorganism in human and animal population which causes gastroenteritis; it is widespread in nature. Under the present systematics, Campylobacter (Campylobacteriaceae) family consist of 16 species and 6 subspecies. Illness can occur in various animals. It causes dysentery in swine, abortion and infertility in cows, abortions in sheep and goats, avian hepatitis in poultry, and enteritis in...

Author(s): Snezana Ivanovic

February 2012

Different strains of heat-killed Lactobacilli affected adhesion on Caco-2 and induced interleukin-6, interleukin-10 and interleukin-12 production

Recently, dead cell has also been regarded as probiotics since they exhibited the beneficial effects to health. This study investigated the adhesion to Caco-2 cell and cytokine response of various heat-killed bacteria such as heat-killed Lactobacillus acidophilus TISTR 450 (HK-LA450), heat-killed Lactobacillus casei  subsp. rhamnosusTISTR 047 (HK-LC047),...

Author(s): Chaiyavat Chaiyasut and Sasithorn Sirilun

February 2012

Isolation and screening of protease producing thermophilic Bacillus strains from different soil types of Pakistan

Thermophilic bacteria produce commercially useful proteases, active at high temperature. Due to growing demand of proteases application in different industries, the present study was designed to isolate protease producing bacillus strains. Nine strains were isolated from three different ecological sources and qualitatively screened on skim milk agar. TheBacillus strain PB1 showed 5.4 cm zone of hydrolysis. The...

Author(s): Pir Bux Ghumro, Maryam Shafique, Muhammad Ishtiaq Ali, Imran Javed, Bashir Ahmad, Asif Jamal, Naeem Ali and Abdul Hameed

February 2012

Identification and determination of coagulase-negative Staphylococci species and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from clinical specimens

  Full Length Research Paper   Identification and determination of coagulase-negative Staphylococci species and antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of isolates from clinical specimens   Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh* and Manijeh Mehdinejad   Department of Microbiology,...

Author(s): Ahmad Farajzadeh Sheikh and Manijeh Mehdinejad

February 2012

Diversity and stress-tolerance of symbiotic nitrogen-fixing bacteria from legumes in the dry-hot valleys of southwest China

The Dry-Hot valleys in Southwest China are hostile environments for living organisms. The dominant plants in the valleys are drought-resistant legumes. Here, we examined the diversity and physiology of the nitrogen-fixing bacteria associated with these legumes. Thirty-three strains were isolated from the nodules of six legume species located in five valleys. Analyses of their 16S rRNA gene sequences indicated that each...

Author(s): Huancheng MA, Jianrong WU, Xiaohong ZENG, Donghua ZHANG, Zhi XIONGand Jianping XU

February 2012

Sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of Clostridium septicum alpha toxin gene from Brazilian field and vaccine strains

In this study, sequencing and phylogenetic analysis of partial sequences of the gene that encodes   alpha toxin from field and vaccine strains of Clostridium septicum from Brazil were performed to analyze genetic differences in  these strains. Alpha toxin nucleotide and amino acid sequences from five field strains of C. septicum and four strains used in the production of vaccines...

Author(s): Ronnie Antunes de Assis, Antonio Augusto Fonseca Júnior, Franciele Maboni Siqueira, Marcelo Fernandes Camargos, Felipe Masiero Salvarani, Prhiscylla Sadanã Pires, Rodrigo Otávio Silveira Silva, Ricardo Aurélio Pinto Nascimento, Agueda Palmira Castagna de Vargas and Francisco Carlos Faria Lobato

February 2012

Comparison of acid-fast bacilli smear and chromatographic immunoassay in patients with active tuberculosis

The aim of this study was to compare acid-fast bacilli smear and chromatographic immunoassay in patients with active tuberculosis (TB). The ability to rapidly detect tubercle bacilli in respiratory secretions was determined for the acid-fast bacilli (AFB) smear in comparison with chromatographic immunoassay in serum samples. A total of 96 respiratory specimens and 96 serum samples were evaluated. The chromatographic...

Author(s): Aurora Martínez-Romero, José Luis Ortega-Sánchez, María Guadalupe González-Yañez, José Ramón Hernández-Salgado, Estela Ruíz-Baca, José de Jesús Alba-Romero, and Maribel Cervantes-Flores

February 2012

Isolation of the cell wall-associated 34 kD antigen of paratuberculosis by electro elution

Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis is the causative agent of Jhone’s disease or paratuberculosis in ruminants. Effective control of paratuberculosis has been hampered by the lack of a specific antigen for diagnosis of paratuberculosis in early stages of infection. The 34 kD cell wall protein of MAP have been suggested as major species-specific immunodominant antigen in Jhone’s disease, but...

Author(s): N. Kavid, R. Madani, N. Mosavari, F. Golchinfar, R. Keshavarz and T. Emami

February 2012

Cytotoxicity assay and antioxidant activities of the lactic acid bacterial strains

The present study was designed to evaluate the safety degree of lactic acid bacterial (LAB) usage on mammalian cells and anti-oxidative ability of their intact cells, and both extra-and intra-cellular extracts. The non-toxic doses of eleven different LAB strains were detected by cytotoxicity assay test on peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) using neutral red stain. The antioxidant properties of LAB strains were...

Author(s): Hala I. EL-Adawi, Maha A. Khalil, Mostafa M. EL-Sheekh, Nehal M. El-Deeband Mohamed Z. Hussein

February 2012

Molecular dynamic and monte carlo study on nanoenergetic binding sites of neuraminidase in different media

Influenza panedemic affect 25 to 30% of the world's population. Neuraminidase (NA) is the most important surfase glycoprotein of the virus causing cleavage of the sialic acid moieties and releasing of newly formed viral particles. The active site of NA is highly conserved all subtype of influaenza virus, then Neuraminidase is the target of drug designs. Using molecular dynamic (MD) and Monte Carlo simulatory...

Author(s): M. Monajjemi, M. Mousavi, S. Rezaei and F. Mollaamin

February 2012

Phylogenetic analysis of virulence factor gene of Salmonella isolated from clinically symptomatic Chickens

Salmonella enterica is a major cause of human food-borne disease, which is mainly associated with the consumption of contaminated poultry meat and eggs. Understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of Salmonella is an important strategy to lower the prevalence of Salmonella in poultry flocks. The invasion proteins encoded by invA andinvE on...

Author(s): Qiumei Shi, Yanying Zhang, QiuYue wang, Guisheng Gao, Hai Fang, Fuchun Miao, Zengqiang Yuan and Hongxuan He

February 2012

Epidemiologic, etiologic and lesional aspects of aeromonosis of cyprinids from the hydrographic basin of the Prut River, Romania

Between 2009 and 2010, in cyprinid farms located in Iasi and on the Prut River, we diagnosed several infections with bacterial strains, characteristic of mobile species ofAeromonas, and it developed as a result of the stress induced by biotic and abiotic factors. Several anamnetic investigations were carried out, as well as morpho-pathological and bacteriological investigations of two-summer-old phytophagous...

Author(s): Mircea Lazăr, Vasile Vulpe, Irina Gostin, Eleonora Guguianu, Sorin PaÅŸca and Roxana Lazăr

February 2012

Protein-protein relationship measurement based on relative entropy

Protein-protein relationship (or evolutionary distance) measurement is an important research topic in phylogenetics. Currently, most of these methods are based on the sequence alignment process. However, traditional sequence alignment is an NP-hard problem and most algorithms have large scale of computations. We build the relative entropy model to measure evolutionary distances among proteins directly. Since the...

Author(s): Fang-Zhen Liand Feng Gao

February 2012

Diagnostic value of an IFN-γ ELISPOT assay to detect latent tuberculosis infection in hepatitis C patients

The rapid diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) and latent tuberculosis infections (LTBI) is a significant problem in clinical practice. The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent spot (ELISPOT) assay measuring interferon-γ in hepatitis C patients with LTBI. A total of 160 hepatitis C patients at the Jilin University Hospital, Changchun, China, were prospectively enrolled...

Author(s): Keshu Shen, Kaiyu Zhang, Feng Wang, Lu Yu, Shuqin Zhang, Wenjing Zhao, Yuxiang Li, Haiying Chen, Ying Wang, and Junchao Liang

February 2012

Analysis on 99 cases of adverse reactions of Chinese patent drugs

This research is carried out to know more about the adverse reactions of Chinese patent drugs through the analysis on them, the reasons are also discussed. The ADR data sheet is established by combining Excel and manual selection, to make statistics and analysis on the original data of 99 patients. There are many organ systems and clinical manifestations involved in the adverse reactions of Chinese patent...

Author(s): Zhi-Yun Shen and Xiao Chen

February 2012

Isolation and characterization of antifungal lipopeptides produced by endophytic Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28

Bacillus amyloliquefaciens TF28, an endophytic bacterium isolated from soybean root, showed strong antifungal activity in vitro. In this study, crude lipopeptides were extracted with methanol from the precipitate by adding concentrated HCl to culture filtrate. They exhibited highest antifungal activity against the rice bakanae fungus Fusarium moniliforme. Besides F. moniliforme, the crude...

Author(s): Shu-Mei Zhang, Yu-Xia Wang, Li-Qiang Meng, Jing Li, Xiao-Yu Zhao, Xu Cao, Xiu-Ling Chen, Ao-Xue Wang and Jing-Fu Li

February 2012

Sero-epidemiology of foot-and-mouth disease in some Border States of Nigeria

A serological survey was conducted between 2009 and 2011 in six Border States and two other states that lie on the major cattle trek routes in Nigeria with the objective of determining the seroprevalence of foot and mouth disease (FMD) in cattle and demonstrate the evidence of antibodies in sheep, goats and pigs. Four hundred and forty-eight (448) sera were screened for FMD antibodies using the Enzyme-linked...

Author(s): Lazarus, D. D., Schielen, W. J. G., Wungak, Y., Kwange, D. and Fasina, F. O.

February 2012

Evaluation of pathogenic potential and genetic characterization of Fusarium solani: A cause of Fusarium wilt in potato

Fusarium wilt, caused by Fusarium solani, is economically important disease of potato in Pakistan. Presently, pathogenic potential of F. solani was studied by inoculating potato plants with three F. solani, strains to screen the most virulent isolate among F. solaniFCBP-016, F. solani FCBP-434 and F. solani FCBP-470. Pathogenicity test depicted thatF....

Author(s): Zunaira Zaheer, Shazia Shafique, Sobiya Shafique and Tahir Mehmood

February 2012

Typing of toxigenic isolates of Clostridium perfringens by ELISA in ostrich

Toxigenic types of Clostridium perfringens are significant causative agents of enteric disease in domestic animals, although type E is presumably rare, appearing as an uncommon cause of enterotoxemia of lambs, calves and rabbits. In 100 feces samples collected from ostrich farm, 40 strains of C. Perfringens were isolated by biochemical test, of these, 4 strains were toxigenic strains type A and any...


February 2012

Estimation of genetic diversity of mungbean (Vigna radiata L. Wilczek) in Malaysian tropical environment

To evaluate genetic diversity of 20 genotypes of mungbean, an experiment was laid out in a Randomized Complete Block Design with two replications during the period from November, 2010 to February, 2011 at the experimental field of Genetics and Molecular Biology, Institute of Biological science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Eight morphological characters including plant height, number of fruiting...

Author(s): Fetemeh Abna, Faruq Golam and Subha Bhassu

February 2012

Antibacterial and antioxidant activities of root extract of Onosma dichroanthum Boiss. in north of Iran

Onosma dichroanthum Boiss. (Boraginaceae) is locally known as "Hava Chobeh" in north of Iran, which has been used by the rural people as anti-inflammation and antiseptic to treat skin burns and wound healing. In this context, the antimicrobial potential of acetone, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and n-hexane-dichloromethane extracts from root plant against Gram positive and negative bacteria were studied...

Author(s): P. Zarghami Moghaddam, M. Mazandarani, M. R. Zolfaghari, M. T. Badeleh and E. A. Ghaemi

February 2012

Antagonism of actinomycete against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, causal agent of mango brown rot in post harvest storage

For the preliminary screening eighty actinomycetes strains were selected as antagonists against Pestalotiopsis mangiferae, causal agent of brown rot of mango. Actinomycetes strains were cultured with P. mangiferae (dual culture) to determine their in vitroantagonistic ability. 17 strains that strongly inhibited hyphal growth of the pathogens were selected as potent antagonists. Green healthy fruits...

Author(s): I. Ara, H. Rizwana, M. R. Al-Othman and M. A. Bakir

February 2012

Absence of Helicobacter pylori in the river waters in the north of Iran

Helicobacter pylori is a helical shaped bacterium that predominantly resides in stomach and duodenal epithelia. It is believed to be responsible for localized inflammations resulting in peptic ulcers as well as other digestive tract complications. Although half of the world’s population are carriers of the bacterium, its exact mode of transmission and pathogenic mechanisms are yet to be elucidated. The major...

Author(s): Shirin Massoudian, Masood Ghane, Reza Golijani moghadam and Fahimeh Ghorbani Moein

February 2012

Candida albicans TRR1 heterozygotes show increased sensitivity to oxidative stress and decreased pathogenicity

The thioredoxin reductase gene TRR1 has been reported to be overexpressed whenCandida albicans is exposed to oxidative stress. To elucidate the role of TRR1 in the response to oxidative stress and in the pathogenicity of C. albicans, we attempted to disrupt both alleles of this gene using gene-disruption cassettes containing LEU2 andHIS1 as selection markers. The disruption...

Author(s): N. Z. Zaki, F. D. A. Bakar, N. M. Mahadi and A. M. A. Murad  

February 2012

Detection of integron elements and gene groups encoding ESBLs and their prevalence in Escherichia coli and Klebsiella isolated from urine samples by PCR method

Integrons, which are short sequences of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) like transposes have the capability of transferring genes of antibiotic resistance to other bacteria. Studies have revealed that these elements could bear the extended spectrum beta lactamase (ESBL), genes that are transmitted to many strains of bacteria especially Enterobacteriaceae members. The aim of this study was to determine prevalence...

Author(s): Abdollah Karimi⊃, Mohammad Rahbar, Fatemeh Fallah⊃, Masoumeh Navidinia⊃ and Mohammad Ali Malekan⊃

February 2012

In vitro antifungal activity of Calocybe gambosa extracts against yeasts and filamentous fungi

Three strains of Calocybe gambosa (Fr.) Donk were investigated as possible sources of biologically active substances with antifungal activity. After submerged cultivation of C. gambosa mycelium, biologically active materials were isolated as ethyl acetate extracts from culture liquids. The in vitro activity of these C. gambosa extracts (Cg1, Cg2, Cg3) against yeasts and...

Author(s): P. Angelini, B. Tirillini and R. Venanzoni

February 2012

Fumonisin contamination based on flour quality used in bakeries and confectioneries in Qaemshahr (city of the Northern Iran)

Fumonisins are the mycotoxin that is produced by Fusarium species which are found incereals and cereal-based foods products. This toxin causes esophageal cancer inhumans, leucoencephalomalasia in horses and pulmonary edema in swine, other hostsinclude cattle, chicken and other pets. In this study, 42 samples of wheat...

Author(s): S. Roohi, I. Gholampour Azizi and M. Hashemi

February 2012

Screening and identification of halotolerant yeast for hydrocarbon degrading and its properties studies

A strain of hydrocarbon degrading yeast named YH-41 was isolated and purified from the soil polluted by crude oil from Shengli oil field, China. The strain was identified by morphological, biochemical characteristics and 18S rDNA sequence analysis, the results show that the strain was similar to the haploid nucleus of Pichia ohmen, which belong toCandida., The GC analysis showed that the yeasts degradated...

Author(s): Yao Shumin, Ni na, Xu Zhaoyanga and Tan Jinglia

February 2012

Seroepidemiology of varicella-zoster virus among pregnant women in Hamedan, Iran

Varicella is a highly contagious illness that is severe and associated with a greater risk of complications and death in adults than in children. The disease in pregnant women may result in congenital varicella syndrome. The aim of this study was to determine the immunity level against varicella-zoster virus among pregnant women in Hamedan, Iran. During a cross-sectional study, blood samples of 270 pregnant women...

Author(s): Mojgan Mamani, Mehrangiz Zamani, Seyyed Hamid Hashemi, Marjan Akhtari and Amin Niayesh

February 2012

Copper induced biofilm formation and changes on photosynthetic pigment in Euglena gracilis

In the present study we evaluated the effects of two copper sulfate (CuSO4) concentrations (0.4 and 3 mM) in the culture medium on the biofilm production and photosynthetic compounds concentrations in Euglena gracilis. The results showed that the exposure of E. gracilis to both 0.4 and 3 mM Cu2+ stimulated the ability of this microorganism to increase its biofilm production with a mean ± SD...

Author(s): Laura Selene Morales-Calderón, Nibardo Armenta-Ortiz, Vianey Méndez-Trujillo, Esau Ruiz-Sanchez, Daniel González-Mendoza, Onecimo Grimaldo-Juarez, Lourdes Cervantes-Diaz and Monica Aviles-Marin

February 2012

Inhibition effects of fennel extract (Foeniculum vulgare Mill) on pine wood nematode and the bacteria it carries

The effects of fennel extract on pine wood nematode (PWN) and the bacteria it carries were studied. The results showed that ethanol extract could kill pine wood nematode efficiently with a LC50 of 16.5, 9.5, 8.8, 7.8 and 7.6 mg/ml within 24, 36, 48, 60 and 72 h, respectively. Also, the extract showed antibacterial activity against most of bacteria that PWN carries. Pseudomonas fluorescens GcM5-1A...

Author(s): Yanzhi Guo, Lili Qin, Chunxiao Qiao, Daosen Guo, Aiyun Zhao, Boguang Zhao, Tongqing Yue and Ronggui Li

February 2012

The inhibitory effect of Streptomyces chromofuscus on β-lactamase of Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-10145

Seventy un-repeated Streptomyces isolates were isolated from different agricultural regions in Riyadh city. Amoxicillin-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC-10145 was obtained with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) > 1000 µ Streptomycesisolates were screened for producing β-lactamase inhibitory effect against P. aeruginosaATCC-10145. There were...

Author(s): W. M. Abdulkhair

February 2012

Antibacterial activity of some of the commonly sold cough mixtures in South Western Nigeria

Cough is a common upper respiratory tract condition usually complicated by microbial infections. It is a common public health problem worldwide. Cough mixtures, for which antibacterial activities are rarely indicated are commonly used in cough management. This study investigated the antibacterial activities of some commonly used cough mixtures in South Western Nigeria against different bacterial isolates of clinical...

Author(s): O. O. Olajuyigbe, E. A. Ogra and A. J. Afolayan

February 2012

Antimicrobial activity of some alimentary and medicinal plants

Vicia faba L., Vaccinium macrocarpon, Punica granatum, Lavandula officinalis, Artemisia absinthium, Linum capitatum and Camellia sinensis were frequently used in our alimentation. In this study, we have tested the antimicrobial activity of their ethanolic and methanolic extracts on some pathogen bacteria, then their ability to in vivo inhibit the growth of Streptococcus pneumoniae. The...

Author(s): Souad Akroum and Korrichi Lalaoui  

February 2012

Literature analysis on 12 cases of allergic shock caused by lomefloxacin

The objective of this work is to investigate the characteristics and laws of clinical application of lomefloxacin causing allergic shock and promote rational clinical drug use. We retrieve the medical journals published domestically and make statistical analysis on the cases of allergic shock caused by lomefloxacin. Our results revealed that the incidence of allergic shock in patients of 18 to 60 years old is high,...

Author(s): Jingchun Huang, Gang Guo, Liangjun Xie and Shiyi Zhao  

February 2012

Extraction and in vitro antioxidant activity of exopolysaccharide by Pholiota adiposa SX-01

The extraction parameters for Pholiota adiposa SX-01 exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced during submerged culture were optimized using response surface methodology. The optimum conditions for EPS extraction were predicted to be, concentration at 87.36°C, precipitation for 35.18 h at pH 8.81, and EPS production was estimated to be 8.45 g/L. The actual yield of EPS under these conditions was 8.39 g/L....

Author(s): Zhaogang Sun#, Yu Tian#, Mengshi Jia#, Lifei Pang#, Peng Deng, Keming Fan, Xiaonan Liu, Shouhua Jia and Le Jia #Contributed equally

February 2012

Study on anti-tumor activity of Stigmatella WXNXJ-B in vitro and qualitative analysis of its anti-tumor components

The anti-tumor effect of the metabolites produced by mxobacteria Stigmatella WXNXJ-B was evaluated on mouse melanoma B16 tumor cell line by MTT assay. The highest bioactive fraction, CF100, mainly contained the lactones by qualitative analysis. The anti-tumor bioactivity was relatively stable when the temperature was lower than 70°C, pH was in the range of 3 to 10 and CF100 was treated with daylight and...

Author(s): Dahong Wang, Cuili Qin, Jiangfeng Yuan and Shaobin Gu