Educational Research and Reviews

  • Abbreviation: Educ. Res. Rev.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1990-3839
  • DOI: 10.5897/ERR
  • Start Year: 2006
  • Published Articles: 2008

Full Length Research Paper

Meta-cognitive knowledge, locus of control and understanding mathematical jokes: A study in students with and without learning disabilities

Saied Bishara
  • Saied Bishara
  • Department of Special Education, Faculty of Education, Beit Berl College and Open University, Israel.
  • Google Scholar

  •  Received: 24 July 2023
  •  Accepted: 21 September 2023
  •  Published: 31 December 2023


This study examined how metacognitive knowledge and locus of control are associated with understanding mathematical jokes in students with and without learning disabilities. This study looked at a sample of 60 ninth-grade students of which 30 had a learning disability diagnosis and 30 had no learning disabilities. Students were tested using three instruments: a metacognitive knowledge questionnaire, a locus of control questionnaire, and a questionnaire to gauge understanding of mathematical jokes. The results point to a significant correlation between these three variables. Students with learning disabilities presented lower performance on all measures compared with students without learning disabilities. In view of the marked gaps between the two populations of students, it is important to support students with learning disabilities in the areas of metacognitive knowledge and locus of control. This may help improve their academic achievements in mathematics and other school subjects, and may have a beneficial effect on their social interactions and on dropout rates.


Key words: Metacognitive knowledge, Locus of control, Mathematical jokes, Learning disabilities.