African Journal of

  • Abbreviation: Afr. J. Biotechnol.
  • Language: English
  • ISSN: 1684-5315
  • DOI: 10.5897/AJB
  • Start Year: 2002
  • Published Articles: 12487

Table of Content: 1 March 2012; 11(18)

March 2012

Methane fermentation process as anaerobic digestion of biomass: Transformations, stages and microorganisms

  Anaerobic decomposition of organic compounds is conducted in close cooperation of specialized bacteria of different types, including mostly hydrolyzing, digestive, acetogenic, homoacetogenic, sulfate-reducing (VI) and methanogenic bacteria. A great interest in the anaerobic digestion process results mainly from its advantages, as compared to aerobic methods. The main advantages of the methane digestion...

Author(s):   Krzysztof ZiemiÅ„ski, and Magdalena FrÄ…c        

March 2012

Molecular characterisation of Musa L. cultivars cultivated in Malawi using microsatellite markers

  Genetic diversity and relationships were assessed in 141 locally named banana cultivars growing in five districts of Malawi at 12 microsatellite loci. High allelic diversity (174 alleles) attributable to high frequency of duplicated alleles was observed. Primers discriminating power was high with mean polymorphism information content (PIC) of 0.74. Low mean genetic diversity contrary to actual allele count...

Author(s):   Wisdom Changadeya Emmanuel Kaunda and Aggrey J. D. Ambali      

March 2012

Molecular identification of Cupressaceae (Coniferales) in Vietnam based on 18S-rRNA sequence

  We investigated phylogenetic relationships of nine Cupressaceae species from four subfamilies: Cupressoidae, Taxodioidae, Cunninghamioidae and Taiwanioidae using 18S ribosomal DNA sequences. These data indicated that Cupressaceae was divided into two lineages: Taiwanioidae/Cunninghamioidae containing the species in generaCunninghamia and Taiwania, and Cupressoidae/Taxodioidae containing the species...

Author(s):   Nguyen Minh Tam, and Nguyen Thi Phuong Trang   .    

March 2012

Detection of the parasitic plant, Orobanche cumana on sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.) in Tunisia

  Orobanche cumana broomrape is a parasitic plant described as an agricultural problem for sunflower production in many countries. In Tunisia, this pathogen was found parasitizing sunflower cultivars in some fields in the Béja region, for the first time during the 2009-2010 agricultural season. Clear O. cumana attachments were observed in some sunflower fields and the infestation rates...

Author(s):   Moez Amri, Zouhaier Abbes, Salah Ben Youssef, Meriam Bouhadida, Hamadi Ben Salah and Mohamed Kharrat        

March 2012

Effect of environmental factors on distribution of stream macroalgae in Niangziguan Spring in Shanxi Province, North China

  A survey of the spatial and temporal distribution of macroalgae in a stream system in Shanxi Province, North China, was undertaken from March, 2006 to January, 2007. The percent cover, biomass of macroalgae and several environmental factors were monitored along a 20 m stretch at each of seven sites, every 2 months during 1 year. All the measured environmental factors had seasonal fluctuations in different...

Author(s):   Shi Ying1, Xie Shu-Lianï¼’, Li Zhen, Hu Bian-Fang, Li Yan-Hui, Zhang Meng        

March 2012

Trichoderma spp. from rhizosphere soil and their antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum

  One hundred and forty six (146) isolates of Trichoderma spp. were obtained from rhizosphere soils of potato plants in the middle areas of Gansu Province, China. By means of dual culture method, they were examined for antagonism against Fusarium sambucinum, which causes potato dry rot. Ten of the isolates were found to be evidently antagonistic to the pathogen. Based on morphological...

Author(s):   Zhang Ru, and Wang Di,    

March 2012

Effects of water stress and seed mass on germination and antioxidative enzymes of Xanthoceras sorbifolia

  The effects of water stress and seed mass on germination, as well as antioxidative enzymes, in Xanthoceras sorbifolia seed were studied. The germination percentage decreased gradually in all seeds with decreasing water potential. The reduction was more significant under -0.6 MPa treatment than under the -0.2 MPa treatment in all seeds. The germination percentage of the big seeds was the highest in...

Author(s):   Youyan Guo, , Wenhui Zhang, Jingfeng He, Jianyun Zhou and Hongyuan Yu        

March 2012

Evaluation of antifungal activity from Bacillus strains against Rhizoctonia solani

  In this study, 30 bacterial strains isolated from marine biofilms were screened for their antifungal activity against Rhizoctonia solani by dual culture assay. Two bacterial strains, Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus cereus, showed a clear antagonism against R. solani on potato dextrose agar (PDA) medium. The antagonistic activity of B. subtilisagainst this...

Author(s):   Salem Elkahoui, Naceur Djébali, Olfa Tabbene, Adel Hadjbrahim, Bacem Mnasri, Ridha Mhamdi, Mohamed Shaaban and Ferid Limam      

March 2012

Monitoring population density and fluctuations of Anisandrus dispar and Xyleborinus saxesenii (Coleoptera: Scolytinae, Curculionidae) in hazelnut orchards

  Bark (Anisandrus dispar) and ambrosia beetles (Xyleborinus saxesenii) (Coleoptera: Curculionidae: Scolytinae) include many important pest species of forest and fruit trees. These beetles prefer physiologically stressed trees for colonization but some species also attack healthy trees. Bark and ambrosia beetles consist of two main ecological groups; bark beetles settle in the phloem, whereas ambrosia...

Author(s):   Ä°slam Saruhan and Hüseyin Akyol        

March 2012

Resistance capability of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation subjected to pH shock

  The resistance capability to pH shock of microaerobic granular sludge for pentachlorophenol (PCP) degradation was studied. The results show that it had little effect on the system under short-term shock, and the system returned to normal state immediately,while large adverse effect occurred under long-term shock, and the system required long time to recover. The content of extracellular...

Author(s):   S.H. Lan and  X. W. Wu        

March 2012

Decolorization of laundry effluent by filamentous fungi

  This study aimed to select fungi with the potential to decolorize effluent and optimize culture conditions using the methodology of experimental design. Twenty fungi were inoculated into flasks containing the liquid synthetic medium every 24 h; aliquots were over 10 days. The culture conditions and stationary stirring of 130 rpm were evaluated. After selecting, the best fungi were subjected to an experimental...

Author(s):   Rita de Cassia M. Miranda, , Edelvio de Barros Gomes, Ester Ribeiro Gouveia, Katia Maria G. Machado and Norma Buarque de Gusmao,  

March 2012

Statistical analysis and optimization of copper biosorption capability by Oenococcus oeni PSU-1

  Lactic acid bacteria (LAB) have been reported to remove heavy metals. The removal of heavy metals, from aqueous solution by LAB has been observed to be strain dependent. In this study, statistical designs were performed to optimize the conditions required for metal biosorption by Oenococcus oeni PSU1. A screening experiment revealed that O. oeni PSU-1 biosorp Cu2+ with a high...

Author(s):   Amani, M. D. El-Ahwany    

March 2012

Bacteria response to non-thermal physical factors: A study on Staphylococcus aureus

  The response of Staphylococcus aureus germ to the action of ionizing radiation and cold plasma jet was studied in the frame of a comparative experimental research. The inactivation effect of electromagnetic ionizing radiations provided by medical X-ray device has resulted in up to 75% diminution of bacterial cell density, while for the same radiation doses provided by 6 MeV electron beam delivered...

Author(s):   Focea Ramona, Poiata Antoniea, Motrescu Iuliana, Nastuta Andrei, Creanga Dorina and Popa Gheorghe        

March 2012

Application of response surface methodology to the optimization of amylase production by Aspergillus oryzae MTCC 1847

  This research paper mainly focused on developing a media by optimizing parameters like sweet potato concentration, sodium nitrate concentration, pH, temperature for the maximum production of amylase by Aspergillus oryzae MTCC 1847. Optimization of the medium components such as sweet potato (carbon source), sodium nitrate (nitrogen source) and parameters like pH and temperature were studied for the...

Author(s):   K. Tamilarasan, C. Muthukumaran and M. Dharmendira Kumar      

March 2012

Biodiversity in red clover (Trifolium pratense L.) collected from Turkey. II: Nutritional values

  The objective of this study was to compare 47 red clover  (Trifolium pratense L.) populations and one cultivar as a control in terms of nutritional values for animal feeding in the second production year (2010). The experiment was established in Samsun-Turkey. They were evaluated for crude protein (CP), acid detergent fiber (ADF), neutral detergent fiber (NDF), total digestible nutrients (TDN), dry...

Author(s):   Ozlem Onal Asci    

March 2012

Pulp antioxidant activities, mineral contents and juice nutritional properties of Algerian Clementine Cultivars and Mandarin

  Six cultivars of Clementine fruits including ‘Cadoux’, ‘Monreal‘, ‘St Martin’, ‘Merme’, ’Cheylard’, ’Rocamora’ and one mandarin fruit cultivar were chemically analysed for their juice characteristics (water content, pH, acidity, total soluble solids and ascorbic acid). Ascorbic acid content varied from 35.98 to 69.41 mg/100 ml,...

Author(s):   Hafid Boudries, Khodir Madani, Naima Touati, Samiha Souagui, Sonia Medouni and Mohamed Chibane        

March 2012

Inhibitory activity of a water-soluble morin derivative on phosphatase of regenerating liver-3

  Morin sulphate, a novel water-soluble derivative was semi-synthesized from morin as a parent molecule. The aim of the current study was to examine the inhibitory activity of morin sulphate on the phosphatase of regenerating liver-3 (PRL-3), and its role in the metastatic potency of high metastatic ovarian carcinoma cell line (HO-8910PM) in vitro. Morin sulphate significantly inhibited PRL-3 activity in a...

Author(s):   Liu Wen, Xiao De-Qian, Liang Nian-Ci, and He Tai-Ping,      

March 2012

Activity of the main fatty acid components of the hexane leaf extract of Ricinus communis against Spodoptera frugiperda

  The composition of hexane leaf extract of Ricinus communis was determined by gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (GC-MS) to contain four fatty acids: linolenic acid (47.76%), linoleic acid (15.28%), palmitic acid (13.01%), and stearic acid (1.73%). The insectistatic and insecticidal activities of the two major components, linolenic acid and linoleic acid, on the larval development...

Author(s):   M. A. Ramos-López, M. M. González-Chávez, N. C. Cárdenas-Ortega, M. A. Zavala-Sánchez and S. Pérez G.        

March 2012

Theoretical evaluations of electro-manipulation from Jurkat T cells exposed to pulsed electric fields (PEFs) with different time durations

  The multilayer dielectric sphere model (MDSM) was used to analyze responses of Jurkat T cells to pulsed electric fields (PEFs). The dependence of voltages across nuclear plasma, nuclear envelope, cytoplasm and plasma membrane on different time durations of PEFs was calculated by employing the inverse laplace transformation (ILT) in time domain with Maple software. Cytochrome C release was considered as a...

Author(s):   Minghe Wu, Hongchun Yang, Baohua Teng, Yu Lei, Xiaoming Zheng, Mei Zhang, Yang Li and Chengli Ruan      

March 2012

Antioxidant potential of the extracts of Putranjiva roxburghii, Conyza bonariensis, Woodfordia fruiticosa and Senecio chrysanthemoids

  Putranjiva roxburghii, Conyza bonariensis, Woodfordia fruiticosa and Senecio chrysanthemoids were collected from different areas of Pakistan and extracted in methanol. The crude methanolic extract was dissolved in water and further partitioned with n-hexane, chloroform and n-butanol successively. Total phenols of all extracts were calculated using Folin-Ciocalteu (FC) reagent, while antioxidant...

Author(s):   Durre Shahwar, Muhammad Asam Raza, Afifa Saeed, Madiha Riasat, Faiza Ilyas Chattha, Merva Javaid, Sami Ullah and Saif Ullah        

March 2012

Effects of Geven root extract on proliferation of HeLa cells and bcl-2 gene expressions

  Geven (Astragalus L.) root extract is used for asthma, diarrhea, and cancer therapy in Chinese Medicine. Liquid Astragalus root extracts are traditionally used in Anatolia for leukemia and wound healing. 439 species of this plant, which has 3000 species in the world, grow in Turkey and 204 of these  are endemic. In this study, molecular mechanism of apoptotic and cytotoxic effects of root...

Author(s):   Gül Özcan Arıcan, Özgür Çakır, Ercan Arıcan, Neslihan Turgut Kara, Özlem DaÄŸdeviren, Åžule Arı,      

March 2012

Sequences polymorphism and variation of major histocompatibility complex DRB exon 2 of black Dahe pig

  DNA sequences of swine leukocyte antigens (SLA) DRB exon 2 from five populations were used to investigate genetic polymorphism of black Dahe pig in Yunnan province of China. Our results showed that the SLA-DRB exon 2 of black Dahe pig obtained high variable rate of 23.50%, which was higher than the values analyzed for cattles or other livestocks. The average G + C content at the third synonymous variable...

Author(s):   Lizhou Tang, Long Yu, Jiangang Chen, Junjie Wang, Mei Ma, Weidong Luand Tongzuo Zhang